The National Library of the Philippines, Manila, Republic of the Philippines

March 1940 National Library Circulation Division (American Circulating Library) Supplemental Library Card No. 38218 S issued to Bernardino Orque from Araullo High School

March 1940 National Library Circulation Division (American Circulating Library) Supplemental Library Card No. 38218 S issued to Bernardino Orque
from Araullo High School (front)
March 1940 National Library Circulation Division (American Circulating Library) Supplemental Library Card No. 38218 S issued to Bernardino Orque
from Araullo High School (back)

The National Library of the Philippines was established as the Museo-Biblioteca de Filipinas through a royal decree by the then-ruling Spanish colonial government on August 12, 1887. The library opened to the public with 100 volumes on October 24, 1891. On December 10, 1898, as part of the peace agreement between Span and the United States to end the Spanish-American War, the territory of the Philippines was granted to the United States.  

During the American occupation, the Museo-Biblioteca de Filipinas was abolished and replaced by the American Circulating Library (ACL), which was stocked with books donated by the American Red Cross. By 1901, the ACL’s collection grew to over 10,000 volumes and proved challenging to manage. Thus, the ACL donated the library collection, mainly comprised of English-Language fiction, periodicals, and newspapers, to the government of the Philippines. The formal acceptance of the ACL’s library collection on March 5, 1901, ushered in the official beginning of the National Library and public library system of the Philippines. The National Library’s original location was Rosario Street (now Quintin Paredes Street), and growth necessitated a move to the Hotel de Oriente (on Plaza Calderon de la Barca) in 1904.

The American occupation proved chaotic for the library system in the Philippines. Over the next 25 years, the name, location, and governing of the library would change multiple times, but on December 7, 1928, Philippine Assembly would again become the governing body and changed the name of the library to the National Library. The National Library moved to the Legislative Building on Padre Burgos Street in Ermita and would serve as the library’s home until 1944.

The Legislative Building on Padre Burgos Street in Ermita, which now houses the National Museum of Fine Arts (Pambansang Museo ng Sining), would serve as the National Library’s home from 1928 to 1944. (public domain)

In 1942, the islands fell under Japanese occupation, and the US and Philippines military forces fought together during 1944-45 to regain control. Initially, the Japanese occupation did little to disrupt the functioning of the library, but the Battle of Manila resulted in significant destruction to the library’s collections.  

On March 23, 1960, construction began on a new building to house the National Library. The new six-story library building opened to the public on June 19, 1961, with a capacity of one million volumes. The National Library currently holds over 1.6 million pieces in its collection, including over 210,000 books; over 880,000 manuscripts, more than 170,000 newspaper issues from across the Philippines; theses and dissertations; government publications; 3,800 maps and 53,000 photographs.

The present home of the National Library of the Philippines, Manila, Philippines, 1964 (no known copyright restrictions)

Guille-Allès Library, Guernsey, Channel Islands

1945 Guille-Allès Library Reserved Book Reminder Postcard addressed to Mrs. P. De la Mare

1945 Guille-Allès Library Reserved Book Reminder Postcard addressed to Mrs. P. De la Mare (front)
1945 Guille-Allès Library Reserved Book Reminder Postcard addressed to Mrs. P. De la Mare (back)

The Guille-Allès Library

“Never shall I forget, the emotion of wonder and delight which seized me when, for the first time, I entered the library. ”

– Thomas Guille said of his first time in the Apprentice’s Library of The General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen in New York City

In 1832, 14-year-old, Thomas Guille, set off from Guernsey for America to become an apprentice at a painting company owned by a family friend, Daniel Mauger. While in New York City, Guille had access to the Apprentice’s Library of The General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen. Amazed by the library’s extensive collection, Guille resolved to open a similar library in Guernsey and, thus, began purchasing books with his earnings. In 1834, Frederick Mansell Allès, a school friend of Guille’s, joined him in New York and found employment at the same painting company. Several years later, when Daniel Mauger opened another business in neighboring Brooklyn, Guille and Allès took over the New York City company, beginning what would be a lifelong partnership. 

In 1851, while on a routine visit to Guernsey, Guille unveiled his proposed library plan through a series of articles in the local newspaper, La Gazette Official de Guernsey, but it took another five years for his plans to begin to unfold. In 1856, Guille established a circulating library that rotated a supply of books amongst several stations throughout the island. Then in 1867, all of the books were centralized at one location in St. Peter Port.

In 1869, after experiencing near-fatal sunstroke, Guille and his new wife, Eliza, returned permanently to Guernsey, bringing with him the books he had collected while in New York City. Guille’s recuperation was slow, but this allowed him to set about developing the library, but on August 11, 1871, Eliza fell from a cliff to her death while walking with friends. A bereaved Guille subsequently devoted himself entirely to the development of the library, along with the assistance of John Linwood Pitts. In 1881, Guille’s 30-year business partner, Frederick Allès, returned permanently to Guernsey and re-associated himself with the library venture.  The growing library was moved to the Assembly Rooms on Market Street and opened to the public on January 2, 1882.

The Star (Saint Peter Port, Guernsey, England), December 13, 1881.

While the library was public, it was not yet free. Because the English Libraries Act did not extend to the Channel Islands, there was a small annual membership fee of 10 francs. 

One year later, Guille and Allès purchased the Market Street building, which had room for 50,000 volumes, as well as newspaper and magazine rooms, reference and lending libraries, meeting rooms and classrooms, a cloakroom, and even a ladies’ lavatory. 

Frederick Mansell Allès died on February 20, 1985, and Thomas Guille on December 4, 1896.  

Late 1800’s Guille-Allès Library Book Plate (usually found on the outside cover of the book)
Late 1800’s Guille-Allès Library Book Plate
Late 1800’s Guille-Allès Library Book Stamp

World War II

On June 30, 1940, during the peak of World War II, German troops invaded the Channel Islands resulting in a five-year occupation.  Although Guernsey was occupied, the Guille-Allès Library continued operating, although hours were cut short and books were censored and many replaced with German language reading materials. German soldiers were issued permits to borrow books, but were rarely used.   

As the occupation continued and life became more difficult for the people of Guernsey, in acts of passive resistance, the librarians began to hide forbidden items such as food and wireless radio sets behind books and on dummy shelves.  In 1942, Guille-Allès librarian, Arthur Henry Davey, was arrested by German troops and sent to Biberach, an internment camp in Germany for inhabitants of the Channel Islands.  During his imprisonment, the library maintained his position and saved his pay until he returned after the war.  The Channel Islands and Guernsey remained occupied until May 9, 1945, when German forces surrendered upon the announcement of the end of the war.  

The Old Government House Hotel

The card is addressed to Mrs. P. De la Mare at Fairholme, Ann’s Place, St. Peter Port, which is the address of The Old Government House Hotel.  Built in the early eighteenth century as a home for a local merchant, the house was purchased by the Channel Islands’ government in 1797 to serve as the home of the Lieutenant Governor.  In 1857, the home was sold and began operation as the Old Government House Hotel.  During the German occupation, the hotel was used a base for German officers, and in 1941, became a soldiers’ home for the remainder of the war.  The hotel continues to operate today as a 5-star hotel.

The Old Government House Hotel, circa 1960s (no known copyright restrictions)

The Panama Canal Library, Panama Canal Zone

The Panama Canal Library, Panama Canal Zone, 1941 Library Card No. 06953 issued to Mrs. M. E. Nantz

The Panama Canal Library, Panama Canal Zone, 1941 Library Card No. 06953 issued to Mrs. M. E. Nantz (front)

The Panama Canal and The Panama Canal Zone

In 1903, the Republic of Panama, having just gained independence from Columbia, granted the United States full control of a 20 mile wide stretch of territory in the Isthmus of Panama to build a canal connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans to create shipping routes.  In addition to the construction of the canal, homes, schools, hospitals, offices and recreational areas were built for the thousands of Americans that would protect and oversee operations of the canal.   

The Panama Canal Zone was built to resemble an American suburb, complete with cream and gray stucco houses and manicured lawns.  American automobiles were imported and movie theaters showed the latest movies being shown in the States. Peak population was around 100,000 during 1950-1953.  Although “the Zone” was described by some as “a kind of paradise,” it was anything but for many residents.  A “rigid social hierarchy”  and Jim Crow by-laws enforced social and racial inequities.

In 1999, the Panama Canal Zone was transferred back to the Panamanian government, thus ending U. S. involvement in the maintenance and protection of the Panama Canal.

The Panama Canal Library

In 1914, The Panama Canal Library was established providing an official reference service for the Panama Canal Zone.  The library system consisted of nine stations — a Main Library, three branches and five circulating libraries.  Anyone that lived in or worked in the Canal Zone was eligible for library privileges. However, non-U.S. Citizens or anyone not working for or living in the Canal Zone was required to make a refundable deposit when borrowing materials.  In 1951, the Panama Canal Library became the Canal Zone Library-Museum.  

Mrs. M. E. Nantz

Maria Nantz (1898-1990) was born in Puerto Rico.  Her husband, Merle Edward Nantz (1902-1989) was a Civil Engineer for the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and U.S. Corp of Engineers, working in Wyoming, the Panama Canal Zone, and Nebraska. They retired to Sarasota, Florida. 

Kelly High School Library, Chicago, Illinois

Pre-1943 Kelly High School Library Bookmark

Kelly High School, Chicago, Illinois

Named for Thomas J. Kelly, the Irish nationalist, Kelly High School located at 4136 S. California Avenue in Chicago, Illinois, opened in December 1928 as a junior high school, only serving grades six through ninth.  After the Board of Education abolished all junior high schools in Chicago in July 1933, Kelly began the1933 school year as a senior high school.  Kelly High School is the third largest high school in Chicago

How to Use the Card Catalog

“The catalog tells what books are in the library.  It is alphabetically arranged by author, title and subject.

The letters and figures in the upper left hand corner of each card show where the book may be found on the shelf.

The books are arranged on the shelf by numerical order from 000-999 and under each number by the author.  Individual biographies are arranged under the number 921 and the last name of the person whose life it is.  

Fiction books are separately grouped and are arranged alphabetically by the author’s last name.

Reference books such as encyclopedias are shelved in a separate section of the library.”

Dewey Decimal Classes

000-099 Journalism, etc

100-199 Psychology, philosophy

200-299 Religion, mythology

300-399 Sociology, economics, government

400-499 Grammar, vocabulary

500-599 Science, mathematics

600-699 Technical, trades, business

700-799 Arts, music, sports

800-899 Poetry, short stories, plays

900-999 Histories – ancient, modern U.S.

910-919 Travel, adventure, geography

920 Collected biography

921 Individual biography

Fiction books arranged on the shelf by the author’s last name.

If you have any difficulty finding what you need we will be glad to help you.

Thomas Joseph Kelly

Thomas Joseph Kelly (1833-1908) was an Irish revolutionary and leader of the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB).

School of Oriental Studies Library, London, England

Post-1945 Card of Admission, School of Oriental Studies Library

School of Oriental Studies Library, Post-1945 Card of Admission (front)
School of Oriental Studies Library, Post-1945 Card of Admission (back)

The School of Oriental Studies

Opened in 1916, The School of Oriental Studies, part of the University of London in London, England, was originally housed in the former London Institution buildings at Finsbury Circus.  In the mid-1930s, the School of Oriental Studies moved to Bloomsbury and subsequently, the buildings of the London Institution were abandoned and then demolished.

Finsbury Circus and The London Institute (Public Domain Pre-1923 Postcard)

Focusing on Asian, African and Middle Eastern studies, the library holds over one million volumes and electronic resources for the study of Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and was designated by HEFCE in 2011 as one of the United Kingdom’s five National Research Libraries.   Since 1973, the library has been located in the Philips Building on the Russell Square  campus of the University of London.  The Philips Building was designed by British architect Sir Denys Lasdun, who also designed some of Britain’s most famous brutalist buildings such as the National Theatre and the Institute of Education.   

Rosenberg Library, Colored Branch, Galveston, Texas

Pre-1949 Rosenberg Library, Colored Branch, Library Card No. 1273 issued to Walter Lacey

Rosenberg Library, Colored Branch, Library Card (front)
Rosenberg Library, Colored Branch, Library Card (back)
Rosenberg Library, Colored Branch, Library Card (sleeve)

Rosenberg Library, Colored Branch, Galveston, Texas

Engraving above side entry to the Old Central Cultural Center (author unknown) (no know copyright restrictions)

The “Colored Branch” of the Rosenberg Library in Galveston, Texas, was the first public library in Texas for African Americans.  It is believed that it was also the first public library for African Americans in the entire southern region of the United States. The main branch of the Rosenberg Library, established in 1904 from a trust bequeathed by Henry Rosenberg, was located at 2310 Sealy Street, but due to Jim Crow laws and forced segregation, African American residents were prohibited from using the new library.  Shortly before the opening of the new Rosenberg Library, the Board of Directors resolved to open a “colored” branch “so that the white and colored citizens of Galveston may separately derive advantages from the bequest of Henry Rosenberg for the establishment and maintenance of a Free Public Library for the use of the people of Galveston.”  Subsequently, a new “colored branch” opened in 1905.  It was located in an annex building of Central High School, the first public school for African Americans, located at 1304 27th Street.  The segregated branch opened with over 4,000 volumes and 210 library members.  In 1965, the Galveston School District integrated and the students at Central High School slowly merged with Ball High School.  Central High School closed it’s doors in 1968 and in 1976 became the Old Central Cultural Center.  The words “Colored Branch of Rosenberg Library” are still above the stone doorway leading into the annex.

Henry Rosenberg

Portrait of Henry Rosenberg courtesy of the Rosenberg Library.  No known copyright restrictions.  Used in accordance with the 17 USC 107, Fair Use Doctrine.

Henry Rosenberg born in Switzerland in 1824, arrived in Galveston, Texas in February 1843 and worked as a clerk in a dry-goods store.  He eventually purchased the business and turned it into the leading dry-goods store in Texas by 1859.  Subsequently, he branched into financing and investing in the banking, real estate and transportation industries.  He died in Galveston in 1889 and bequeathed part of his fortune to the city of Galveston.

Walter Lacey 

Lt. Walter Jay Lacy (1915-1998) was a 1932 graduate of Central High School in Galveston, and joined the Galveston Police Department in 1939. After enlisting in the US Marine Corps and serving a tour during WWII, he resumed his duties for the Galveston Police Department and served the community of Galveston as a detective for 40 years and a civil employee for another 15 years. Lt. Lacy, a highly decorated officer, was recognized by the Texas House of Representatives for his services to the Galveston Police Department, received The Outstanding Officer and Detective Division Award from the 50’s Club of Galveston, and an award from the Texas Peace Officers Association for outstanding services in 1997. 

Columbia University Libraries, New York

Temporary Columbia University Libraries Identification Card for Reference and Stack Privileges issued to Elenor M. Alexander on July 13, 1942 for one week expiring July 20, 1942

1940s Columbia University Libraries Card (front)
1940s Columbia University Libraries Card (back)

Columbia University Libraries

Columbia University’s Low Library (Public Domain – pre-1923 postcard)

The Library of Columbia University, also known as the Low Library, served as the main library from 1890s to the 1930s.  By the 1930s, the Low Library had over a million volumes and space because an issue, but with a .4 million dollar donation from the Standard Oil Company, the new Butler Library, with space for over 2 million volumes, was constructed and opened in 1934.  Today, the Columbia University Libraries hold more than 5 million volumes, as well as 2.5 million microform unites and 22 million manuscript items.  The Columbia University Library system collection would stretch nearly 174 miles.  It is the fifth largest academic library in the United States and the largest academic library in the State of New York.  The Low Library now serves as the university’s administrative center.

The libraries currently in the Columbia University Library System are:

• Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library

• Barnard College Library

• Burke Library at the Union Theological Seminary 

• Business & Economics Library (Watson) at the Columbia Business School 

• Butler Library

• Center for Human Rights Documentation and Research

• Columbia Center for Oral History

• Columbia University Archives

• Digital Humanities Center

• Digital Science Center

• Digital Social Science Center

• East Asian Library (Starr)

• Engineering Library (Monell)

• Geology Library

• Geoscience Library at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in Pallisades, NY 

• Global Studies

• Health Sciences Library at the Columbia University Medical Center in Washington Heights in Manhattan

• Jewish Theological Seminary

• Journalism Library

• Arthur W. Diamond Law Library at the Columbia Law School  

• Lehman Social Sciences Library at the School of International School of International and Public Affairs  

• Mathematics Library

• Milstein Undergraduate Library of  Columbia College 

• Music & Arts Library (Weiner)

• Off-Site Shelving Facility (ReCAP)

• Rare Book & Manuscript Library

• Science & Engineering Library

• Journalism Library of Columbia Journalism School 

• Social Work Library of Columbia University School of Social Work

• The Gottesman Libraries of Teachers College

1954 commemorative 3 cent stamp celebrating the 200th anniversary of the Low Memorial Library

Dr. Charles Clarence Williamson

From the Library Journal April 1, 1920 (Public Domain)

C. C. Williamson (1877-1965) served as Director of the Columbia University Libraries and Dean of the Columbia School of Library Service from 1926 to 1940.  He began his career at the New York Public Library in 1911 using his background in economics to become the head of the  then new Division of Economics. His 1919 report for the Carnegie Corporation, The Williamson Report, criticized the educational requirements of librarians and believed a university graduate degree and not a college bachelor’s degree was the appropriate education for professional librarians.  In response to the Williamson Report, The Graduate Library School of the University of Chicago was founded in 1928 and provided librarians with a one year of postgraduate education in librarian science.  By the 1950s, most library schools offered master’s programs in library science.  In 1999, Williamson was named as one of 100 American librarians that made a lasting impact on library service.  

Elenor M. Alexander 

Elenor M. Alexander (Naughton) (1920-1995), born in Morristown, New Jersey, was the night supervisor at the Ocean County Observer for 10 years, and as a 40-plus year resident of Brick, New Jersey, served her community as a Girl Scout and Cub Scout leader.

Merced County Free Library, Gustine Branch, Gustine, California

Pre-1946 Library Card issued to Madeline Agnes Leite

1946 Merced County Free Library Card (front)

Merced County Free Library

The Merced County Free Library’s Gustine Branch, opened in November 1910.  Born from the donations of benefactors, including the Merced County Ladies Library, a membership social library which operated out of Nelson Cody’s (Buffalo Bill’s cousin) Corner Drug Store at 17th and Canal Streets in downtown Merced.  The initial offering of 500 volumes were donated by Nelson’s wife, Anna Marie Nelson Cody, and were located in a back room at the Park Restaurant.  The Gustine Branch relocated in 1948 to 6th Street and 2nd Avenue at Henry Miller Park where it still operates.

Madeline Agnes Leite (1928-2009)

Madelyn Agnes Silva “Mattie” Leite Amaral was a California native and advocate for disabled persons.