Istituto Fascista di Cultura Biblioteca, Rome, Italy

Pre-1937 Istituto Fascista di Cultura Biblioteca Library Card N.641, Issued to Alberto Sorani

Pre-1937 Istituto Fascista di Cultura Biblioteca Library Card N.641, Issued to Alberto Sorani (front)
Pre-1937 Istituto Fascista di Cultura Biblioteca Library Card N.641, Issued to Alberto Sorani (back)

Established as a result of the March 29, 1925, Conference of Fascist Culture (“Convegno degli istituti fascisti di cultura”) at Bologna, Italy, The Fascist Institute of Culture (“Istituto Fascista di Cultura”) was responsible for the “protection, dissemination and development of the ideals and doctrine of fascism within and abroad, and of Italian culture in general.”

In 1941, the Institute claimed over 210,000 members.

English Translation of Istituto Fascista di Cultura Biblioteca Card N. 641, issued to Alberto Sorani

Giovanni Gentile

Giovanni Gentile (1875-1944), the architect of the Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals (“Manifesto degli Intellettuali del Fascismo”), and ardent supporter of Prime Minister Benito Mussolini, was the founder and first President of the Institute (later known as the National Institute of Fascist Culture (“Istituto nazionale di cultura fascista”).  Gentile served as President of the Institute until 1937, during which time he was Scientific Director and an editor of La Treccani, the Italian Encyclopedia of Sciences, Letters and Arts (“L’Enciclopedia Italiana di scienze, lettere ed arti”), a 37 volume encyclopedia set, produced from 1925 to 1937.  Appendices to the set are still available, the last being published in 2018. 

Giovanni Gentile, 1930. No copyright restrictions, Public domain photograph..

Giovanni Gentile was assassinated in Florence, Italy, on April 15, 1944 by Gappista commandos (Italian Communist Party) for his fascist theories and commitment to Mussolini’s fascist dictatorship. 

Giovanni Gentile presents to Benito Mussolini the first volume of La Treccani. Palazzo Venezia, Rome, Italy,, 1937. No copyright restrictions. Public Domain photograph.

Benito Mussolini, his mistress, Claretta Petacci, Goffredo Coppola, Giovanni Gentile’s successor, and 16 other fascist leaders, were executed on April 28, 1945, by the National Liberation Committee (CLN) (“Il Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale”), an organization comprised of members of the main political parties and movements of Italy. The execution of Mussolini effectively ended the fascist dictatorship of Italy..  

The Vatican Secret Archives, Rome, Italy

Archivio Vaticano Admission Card No. 182 issued to O. Fr. Vittorio E. Barriga

1930 Vatican Archives Admission Card No. 182 (front)
1930 Vatican Archives Admission Card No. 182 (back)

The Vatican Archives

The Vatican Archives was established in1612 when Pope Paul V ordered all Church records to be assembled in one place.  Located in Vatican City, it is the central archive for all acts promulgated by the Holy See.  Also located in the Vatican Archives are state papers, correspondent, papal account books, and other church documents accumulated over the centuries.  Part of the Vatican Library until the sometime in the 17th century, Pope Paul V separated the archives from the main library, which limited access to scholars and completely closed off access to the public. In 1881, Pope Leo XIII reopened the archives for research.

The Vatican is currently undergoing an in-house digitization project to make archive documents more available to researchers and to provide an extra layer of preservation for aging documents.  Over seven million images have been digitized and are now available online.

The Vatican Archives (no known copyright restrictions)




Tessera di ammissione n. 182 rilasciata al O. Fr. Vittorio E. Barriga il 14 Febbraio 1930 (Admission card n. 182 issued to O. Fr. Vittorio E. Barriga on 14 February 1930)

Vale per entrare in Vaticano dal Portone di Bronzo a dalia porta presso Sant’Anna nei Giorni Comuni d’apertura dell’Archivio (Allows entrance to the Vatican from the Bronze Door to the door at Sant’Anna during open days of the Archive)


Per la validate occorre la fotografia, la firma del titolare e il bollo a data dell’Archivio. (Needs photograph, the holder’s signature and Archive date stamp to be validated.)

Firma del titolare (Signature of Holder)

Validita mesi (Months valid)

Scade il 14 Luglio 1930 (Expires on July 14, 1930)