Pre-1937 Istituto Fascista di Cultura Biblioteca Library Card N.641, Issued to Alberto Sorani
Established as a result of the March 29, 1925, Conference of Fascist Culture (“Convegno degli istituti fascisti di cultura”) at Bologna, Italy, The Fascist Institute of Culture (“Istituto Fascista di Cultura”) was responsible for the “protection, dissemination and development of the ideals and doctrine of fascism within and abroad, and of Italian culture in general.”
In 1941, the Institute claimed over 210,000 members.
Giovanni Gentile (1875-1944), the architect of the Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals (“Manifesto degli Intellettuali del Fascismo”), and ardent supporter of Prime Minister Benito Mussolini, was the founder and first President of the Institute (later known as the National Institute of Fascist Culture (“Istituto nazionale di cultura fascista”). Gentile served as President of the Institute until 1937, during which time he was Scientific Director and an editor of La Treccani, the Italian Encyclopedia of Sciences, Letters and Arts (“L’Enciclopedia Italiana di scienze, lettere ed arti”), a 37 volume encyclopedia set, produced from 1925 to 1937. Appendices to the set are still available, the last being published in 2018.
Giovanni Gentile was assassinated in Florence, Italy, on April 15, 1944 by Gappista commandos (Italian Communist Party) for his fascist theories and commitment to Mussolini’s fascist dictatorship.
Benito Mussolini, his mistress, Claretta Petacci, Goffredo Coppola, Giovanni Gentile’s successor, and 16 other fascist leaders, were executed on April 28, 1945, by the National Liberation Committee (CLN) (“Il Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale”), an organization comprised of members of the main political parties and movements of Italy. The execution of Mussolini effectively ended the fascist dictatorship of Italy..
1945 Guille-Allès Library Reserved Book Reminder Postcard addressed to Mrs. P. De la Mare
The Guille-Allès Library
“Never shall I forget, the emotion of wonder and delight which seized me when, for the first time, I entered the library. ”
– Thomas Guille said of his first time in the Apprentice’s Library of The General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen in New York City
In 1832, 14-year-old, Thomas Guille, set off from Guernsey for America to become an apprentice at a painting company owned by a family friend, Daniel Mauger. While in New York City, Guille had access to the Apprentice’s Library of The General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen. Amazed by the library’s extensive collection, Guille resolved to open a similar library in Guernsey and, thus, began purchasing books with his earnings. In 1834, Frederick Mansell Allès, a school friend of Guille’s, joined him in New York and found employment at the same painting company. Several years later, when Daniel Mauger opened another business in neighboring Brooklyn, Guille and Allès took over the New York City company, beginning what would be a lifelong partnership.
In 1851, while on a routine visit to Guernsey, Guille unveiled his proposed library plan through a series of articles in the local newspaper, La Gazette Official de Guernsey, but it took another five years for his plans to begin to unfold. In 1856, Guille established a circulating library that rotated a supply of books amongst several stations throughout the island. Then in 1867, all of the books were centralized at one location in St. Peter Port.
In 1869, after experiencing near-fatal sunstroke, Guille and his new wife, Eliza, returned permanently to Guernsey, bringing with him the books he had collected while in New York City. Guille’s recuperation was slow, but this allowed him to set about developing the library, but on August 11, 1871, Eliza fell from a cliff to her death while walking with friends. A bereaved Guille subsequently devoted himself entirely to the development of the library, along with the assistance of John Linwood Pitts. In 1881, Guille’s 30-year business partner, Frederick Allès, returned permanently to Guernsey and re-associated himself with the library venture. The growing library was moved to the Assembly Rooms on Market Street and opened to the public on January 2, 1882.
While the library was public, it was not yet free. Because the English Libraries Act did not extend to the Channel Islands, there was a small annual membership fee of 10 francs.
One year later, Guille and Allès purchased the Market Street building, which had room for 50,000 volumes, as well as newspaper and magazine rooms, reference and lending libraries, meeting rooms and classrooms, a cloakroom, and even a ladies’ lavatory.
Frederick Mansell Allès died on February 20, 1985, and Thomas Guille on December 4, 1896.
World War II
On June 30, 1940, during the peak of World War II, German troops invaded the Channel Islands resulting in a five-year occupation. Although Guernsey was occupied, the Guille-Allès Library continued operating, although hours were cut short and books were censored and many replaced with German language reading materials. German soldiers were issued permits to borrow books, but were rarely used.
As the occupation continued and life became more difficult for the people of Guernsey, in acts of passive resistance, the librarians began to hide forbidden items such as food and wireless radio sets behind books and on dummy shelves. In 1942, Guille-Allès librarian, Arthur Henry Davey, was arrested by German troops and sent to Biberach, an internment camp in Germany for inhabitants of the Channel Islands. During his imprisonment, the library maintained his position and saved his pay until he returned after the war. The Channel Islands and Guernsey remained occupied until May 9, 1945, when German forces surrendered upon the announcement of the end of the war.
The Old Government House Hotel
The card is addressed to Mrs. P. De la Mare at Fairholme, Ann’s Place, St. Peter Port, which is the address of The Old Government House Hotel. Built in the early eighteenth century as a home for a local merchant, the house was purchased by the Channel Islands’ government in 1797 to serve as the home of the Lieutenant Governor. In 1857, the home was sold and began operation as the Old Government House Hotel. During the German occupation, the hotel was used a base for German officers, and in 1941, became a soldiers’ home for the remainder of the war. The hotel continues to operate today as a 5-star hotel.
Free Public Library, St. Joseph Missouri, Pre-1915 Library Card No. 2643 issued to Orta Gabbert
Free Public Library, St. Joseph, Missouri
The Free Public Library of St. Joseph had its beginning as a membership library on the 2nd Floor of the Samuels Building at Sixth and Charles Streets. The space was offered free of charge by Mr. Warren Samuels if money could be raised for the books. After a campaign led by Mrs. John S. Lemon, which raised $3000 through the sale of lifetime memberships at $50 each, the library opened on November 8, 1887. The library inventory held over 3,200 books in its first year of operation. In 1890, public interest in a free library grew and by 1900, construction on a new building began. In the meantime, having outgrown the Samuels Building space, the library relocated to Tenth and Sylvanie Streets. On February 9, 1891, with an inventory of over 5,500 volumes, the Public Reading room opened, followed by the opening of the Circulation Department on March 16, 1891. The library remained at the Tenth and Sylvanie Streets location until March 13, 1902, when the new Carnegie library building opened at Tenth and Felix Streets. Designed by Edmund Jacques Eckle, the French Baroque style building features terrazzo flooring in the foyer, a glass-floored balcony, and a stained glass dome. The building was added to the National Register of Historic Places on September 20, 1982.
Edmund Jacques Eckle
Edmond Jacques Eckel (1845-1934), was a French architect trained at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. He settled in St. Joseph, Missouri around 1870 and established the architectural firm of Eckel & Meier. Other significant projects include. the German-American Bank Building (now Mosaic), the Corby Building (the tallest building in St. Joseph), the Paxton Hotel in Omaha, Nebraska, and the Courthouse and “Squirrel Cage” Jail in Council Bluffs, Iowa.
Orta Allen Gabbert Conner (1901-1966), was a Missouri native.